CBSE Guidelines for Business Studies Project on Principles of Management for Class 12 are:
The students are required to visit any one of the following:
1) A departmental store.
2) An Industrial unit.
3) A fast food outlet.
4) Any other organisation approved by the teacher.
They are required to observe the application of the general Principles of management advocated by Fayol.
- Division of work.
- Unity of command.
- Unity of direction.
- Scalar chain
- Espirit de corpse
- Fair remuneration to all.
- Subordination of individual interest to general interest.
- Centralization and decentralization.
- Stability of tenure.
They may enquire into the application of scientific management techniques by
F.W.Taylor in the unit visited.
Scientific techniques of management.
- Functional foremanship.
- Standardization and simplification of work.
- Method study.
- Motion Study.
- Time Study.
- Fatigue Study
- Differential piece rate plan.
Tips to teacher
i. The teacher may organize this visit.
ii. The teacher should facilitate the students to identify any unit of their choice and guide them to identify the principles that are being followed.
iii. Similarly they should guide the students to identify the techniques of scientific management implemented in the organisation.
iv. It may be done as a group activity.
v. The observations could be on the basis of
- The different stages of division of work resulting to specialization.
- Following instructions and accountability of subordinates to higher authorities.
- Visibility of order and equity in the unit.
- Balance of authority and responsibility.
- Communication levels and pattern in the organisation.
- Methods and techniques followed by the organisation for unity of direction and coordination amongst all.
- Methods of wage payments followed.
- The arrangements of fatigue study.
- Derivation of time study.
- Derivation and advantages of method study.
- Organisational chart of functional foremanship.
- Any other identified in the organisation
vi. It is advised that students should be motivated to pick up different areas of visit.
As presentations of different areas in the class would help in better understanding to the other students.
vii. The students may be encouraged to develop worksheets. Teachers should help students to prepare observation tools to be used for undertaking the project. Examples; worksheets, questionnaire, interviews and organisational chart etc.